Military Paper of Csíksomlyó (Sumuleu Ciuc)

The 1848 Revolution sweeping over Europe is of utmost importance to the Hungarians. The Revolution here transformed into a fight for freedom that, despite its defeat, triggered significant social changes and it is still part of the national mythology.

One of the most valuable contemporary historical source is the Military Paper of Csík (Ciuc) whose first issue appeared on 27th May 1849. Its main supporter and initiator was General Bem Józef Zachariasz Bem of  Polish origin, who is still mentioned as Father Bem in Transylvania.

Despite its name, this publication edited by captain Sándor Bíró is not a strictly military one. Besides manifestos and dispatches on military events it aimed at informing both civilians and the military. 

The Paper was printed in the printing house founded in 1675 by Franciscan monks. After defeating the fight for freedom, the monks operating the printing house were mired and compelled to pay a huge fine for this activity.

The Military Paper had only nine issues. The last one, which published Sándor Bíró’s article I apologise! appeared on 16th July 1849, a  month before the surrender at Világos, which meant the end of the fight for freedom.